What does the top-level domain in a url indicate brainly

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Updated on

Nov 23, 2022

Education

Educational technology company

Brainly is a company based in Kraków, Poland, with headquarters in New York City. It is a social learning platform where millions of students and educators solve their academic problems together. Brainly’s mission is to inspire students to share and explore knowledge in a collaborative community.[4] It can also be used as a forum for students, parents, and teachers to ask and answer homework questions. The platform has elements of n in the form of points and ranks. It encourages users to engage in the online community by answering other users’ questions. As of November 2020 , Brainly reported having 350 million monthly users, making it the world’s most popular education app.[5]

History

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Initially called Zadane.pl, the company was founded in 2009 in Poland by Michał Borkowski (current chief executive officer), Tomasz Kraus, and Łukasz Haluch. The first million unique monthly users were achieved within 6 months after the release.[6]

In January 2011, the company founded Znanija.com, the first international project dedicated to Russian language speakers.[7] Several other versions in multiple languages for the following markets included Turkey (eodev.com), Latin America and Spain (brainly.lat), and Brazil (brainly.com.br).

Brainly was initially funded by the co-founders, but raised funds from Point Nine Capital in 2012.[8][9]

In December 2013, seven new language versions of Brainly were released, including English, Indonesian, Indian and more.

In October 2014, the company announced that it had raised another round of funding from General Catalyst Partners, Runa Capital, and other venture capital firms.[10] The total amount of the investment was $9 million, and the company opened headquarters in New York City.[11][12]

In May 2016, another funding round of $18 million of combined debt and equity was disclosed.[13] In June 2016, Brainly acquired the US-based OpenStudy.[14][15]

In March or April 2017, Zadane.pl changed to Brainly.[16]

In October 2017, Brainly raised $14 million in a funding round led by Kulczyk Investments.[17]

In January 2018, Brainly announced it had acquired the video education start-up, Bask,[18] to bring video technology to the Brainly platform.[19]

In July 2019, Brainly raised $30 million in a Series C funding round led by Naspers, with participation from Runa Capital and Manta Ray.[20]

In 2020, the company experienced a significant increase in the number of users, caused by the global COVID-19 pandemic, from 150 million in 2019 to around 350 million in 2020.[5][21]

In 2020, numerous users on the Art of Problem Solving website found that Brainly had compromised the integrity of the American Mathematics Competitions after posting the questions on its website with the correct answers. This led to Brainly updating its honor code.[22]

Platform

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Overview

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Brainly provides a platform where students, parents, and teachers help others with homework questions. The website is intended to strengthen student’s skills across subjects such as English, mathematics, science, and social studies. The platform is utilises a peer-to-peer system where students can ask questions, and answer them for other students. Ranks are provided to students who provide high-quality answers. Users are asked to provide an explanation and a source for the answers they provide. Questions are categorized by subject, respective of country and school level.[23] Each user is given a fixed amount points upon registration, which are used to ask questions. Users can gain points by answering questions posted by others.[24] A leaderboard exists for users who have answered the most questions or earned the most points.

Brainly is moderated by both volunteers and staff and uses machine learning algorithms[25] to filter its Knowledge Base.[26][27] Moderators are trained users whose answers are excellent in content quality. Moderators are given permissions to respond to users who violate rules, including individuals who plagiarize, post spam, or post assessment questions.[citation needed]

Criticism

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ToS;DR (Terms of Service; Didn’t Read), a project which analyzes terms of services (ToS) and privacy policies of websites, ranks Brainly at grade E.[28]

See also

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References

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What is a Domain Name?

Domain name, often referred to as “web address”, is the address that people type into a browser address bar to find your website. A registered domain name is unique to you and can’t be used by anyone else, as it functions on the Internet in a similar way like a street address in the physical world.

Example of a domain name: oberlo.com

Why Do You Need a Domain Name?

Any business, organization or individual striving to establish online presence should own a domain name. A combination of a domain name, website, and email addresses forms your unique identity online. That, in turn, helps your business create a professional look, increase brand awareness, build credibility, and protect your trademarks and copyrights.  

What is the difference between a domain and a subdomain?

Domain (e.g., oberlo.com) is the web address you buy from a domain registry. Subdomain (e.g., blog.oberlo.com) is a subset of a domain that can be created by a domain owner.

Domain Name Types

Top-Level Domain (TLD) refers to the suffix or the last part of a domain name. There’s a limited list of predefined suffixes which includes:

  • .com – commercial business (the most common TLD)

  • .org – organizations (typically, nonprofit)

  • .gov – government agencies

  • .edu – educational institutions

  • .net – network organizations

  • .mil – military

TLDs are classified into two broad categories: generic top-level domains (gTLDs) and country-code top-level domains (ccTLDs).

Generic Top-Level Domain (gTLDs) is a generic top-level domain name that identifies the domain class it is associated with (.com, .org, .edu, etc).

Country Code Top-Level Domain (ccTLD) is a two-letter domain extension, such as .uk or .fr, assigned to a country, geographic location or territory.

nTLDs refers to new top-level domain names that are geared towards brands organizations and services, as they’re more customized, flexible and relevant. Examples of nTLDs include “.voyage”, “.app”, “.ninja”, “.cool”, etc.

What is a URL?

A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is a unique identifier used to locate a resource on the Internet. It is also referred to as a web address. URLs consist of multiple parts — including a protocol and domain name — that tell a web browser how and where to retrieve a resource.

End users use URLs by typing them directly into the address bar of a browser or by clicking a hyperlink found on a webpage, bookmark list, in an email or from another application.

How is a URL structured?

The URL contains the name of the protocol needed to access a resource, as well as a resource name. The first part of a URL identifies what protocol to use as the primary access medium. The second part identifies the IP address or domain name — and possibly subdomain — where the resource is located.

URL protocols include HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) and HTTPS (HTTP Secure) for web resources, mail to for email addresses, FTP for files on a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server, and telnet for a session to access remote computers. Most URL protocols are followed by a colon and two forward slashes; “mail to” is followed only by a colon.

Optionally, after the domain, a URL can also specify:

  • a path to a specific page or file within a domain;
  • a network port to use to make the connection;
  • a specific reference point within a file, such as a named anchor in an HTML file; and
  • a query or search parameters used — commonly found in URLs for search results.

Importance of a URL design

URLs can only be sent over the Internet using the ASCII character-set. Because URLs often contain non-ASCII characters, the URL must be converted into a valid ASCII format. URL encoding replaces unsafe ASCII characters with a “%” followed by two hexadecimal digits. URLs cannot contain spaces.

URL examples

When designing URLs, there are different theories about how to make the syntax most usable for readers and archivists. For example, in the URL’s path, dates, authors, and topics can be included in a section referred to as the “slug.” Consider, for example, the URL for this definition:

https://www.techtarget.com/searchnetworking/definition/URL

Look past the protocol (identified as HTTPS) and the permalink (www.techtarget.com) and we see the file path includes two paths (searchnetworking and definition) and the title of the definition (URL).

Additionally, some URL designers choose to put the date of the post, typically, as (YYYY/MM/DD).

Parts of a URL

Using the URL https://www.techtarget.com/whatis/search/query?q=URL as an example, components of a URL can include:

  • The protocol or scheme. Used to access a resource on the internet. Protocols include http, https, ftps, mailto and file. The resource is reached through the domain name system (DNS) name. In this example, the protocol is https.
  • Host name or domain name. The unique reference the represents a webpage. For this example, whatis.techtarget.com.
  • Port name. Usually not visible in URLs, but necessary. Always following a colon, port 80 is the default port for web servers, but there are other options. For example, :port80.
  • Path. A path refers to a file or location on the web server. For this example, search/query.
  • Query. Found in the URL of dynamic pages. The query consists of a question mark, followed by parameters. For this example, ?.
  • Parameters. Pieces of information in a query string of a URL. Multiple parameters can be separated by ampersands (&). For this example, q=URL.
  • Fragment. This is an internal page reference, which refers to a section within the webpage. It appears at the end of a URL and begins with a hashtag (#). Although not in the example above, an example could be #history in the URL https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet#History.

Other examples of parts of a URL can include:

  • The URL mailto:[email protected] initiates a new email addressed to the mailbox president in the domain whitehouse.gov.
  • The URL ftp://www.companyname.com/whitepapers/widgets.ps specifies the use of the FTP protocol to download a file.

HTTP vs. HTTPs

Both HTTP and HTTPS are used to retrieve data from a web server to view content in a browser. The difference between them is that HTTPS uses a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate to encrypt the connection between the end user and the server.

HTTPS is vital to protecting sensitive information, such as passwords, credit card numbers and identity data, from unauthorized access.

HTTPS uses TCP/IP port number 443 by default, whereas HTTP uses port 80.

URL vs. URI

A URL is the most common type of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). URIs are strings of characters used to identify a resource over a network. URLs are essential to navigating the internet.

URL shorteners

URL shortening is a technique in which an URL may be made substantially shorter in length and still direct to the required page. A shortener achieves this using a redirect on a domain name that is short.

There are many URL shortener services available. While many are free, those that offer capabilities such as Web analytics, charge a fee. Companies that offer URL shorteners include Rebrandly, Bitly, Ow.ly, clicky.me and Budurl.com.

Some Web site hosts, such as GoDaddy.com, offer URL shorteners. Other service providers, including search engines, have begun turning away from URL shorteners because they are often subject to abuse by spammers, who hide malware inside shortened URLs.

URL history

The retention of data related to Web usage has become a huge privacy concern. There has been increased public demand for search engine and application service providers to be transparent in what information they collect, retain and sell.

For example, in March 2019, Google updated its Chrome privacy policy. It notes that in its basic browser mode, the search engine stores information locally on your system. This information includes browsing history, including URLs of pages visited, plus a cache of text, images and other resources from those pages.

However, Google also collects and retains data for various lengths of time. Some data can be deleted whenever a person wants, some data is deleted automatically, and some data Google retains for longer periods of time when necessary.

Written by Jane