Top level domains (tlds) are also known as domain-name extensions

The following domain extensions list includes every country domain in existence. With this table, you can not only discover which country or area the domain extensions belong to, but also whether the respective ccTLD is available with DNSSEC. Websites can use DNSSEC internet standards in order to protect the domain name system from manipulation, which includes, for example, phishing websites, which can request sensitive data using fake webpages.

The column on the right indicates whether a web address registered under the respective ccTLD can also be allocated an internationalized domain name (IDN). As mentioned above, these internationalized domain names can use characters from the Latin alphabet, including those with accents, in addition to characters from other alphabets. These characters are located in the second-level domain (i.e. the name of the website before the country code top-level domain). One example of this is the Canadian weather website, métro.ca, which includes an accented letter.

Top-level domains that have an IDN can be accessed using both Latin characters as well as characters from their respective alphabet. However, this doesn’t mean that the corresponding top-level domain is also offered as an IDN ccTLD at the same time – as is the case with the aforementioned example of Sri Lanka. A good example of this is Germany’s .de domain extension; although there is no alternative for the .de country code, German website owners can use many special characters, including three vowels with umlauts (ä, ö, ü), the ‘ß’ character, as well as further characters that contain accents (à, á, â, ã etc.). Since the German language is based on the Latin alphabet and can be optimally expressed with a ccTLD (unlike Sri Lanka), it’s also not necessary.

Top-level domains are also known as domain suffixes.

Historically, TLDs represented the purpose and type of domain or the geographical area from which it originated. ICANN has generally been very strict about opening up new TLDs, but in 2010, it decided to allow the creation of numerous new generic TLDs as well as TLDs for company-specific trademarks.

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), is the entity that coordinates domains and IP addresses for the internet.

Examples of some of the popular TLDs include:

TLDs are mainly classified into two categories: generic TLDs and country-specific TLDs.

For example, in the internet address: https://www.google.com, the “.com” portion is the TLD.

Top-level domain (TLD) refers to the last segment of a domain name, or the part that follows immediately after the “dot” symbol.

Techopedia Explains Top-Level Domain (TLD)

ARPANET created TLDs to allow humans to ease the process of memorizing IP addresses. Instead of using a series of digits for each computer, the domain name system was established to organize addresses in a more user-friendly way.

In 1971, the first email was developed and sent using an “@” symbol. The “address” after the @ was not the domain but the actual computer it was sending to. In the early 1980s, when the earliest domains started being developed, the first TLDs such as .org and .com saw the light.

A top-level domain recognizes a certain element regarding the associated website, such as its objective (business, government, education), its owner, or the geographical area from which it originated.

Each TLD includes an independent registry controlled by a specific organization, which is managed under the guidance of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).

ICANN recognizes the following types of TLDs:

Generic Top-Level Domains (gTLD)

These are the most popular types of TDLs. Some examples include “.edu” for educational sites and .”com” for commercial sites. These types of TLDs are available for registration.

Country-Code Top-Level Domains (ccTLD)

Every ccTLD recognizes a specific country and is generally two letters long. For example, the ccTLD for Australia is “.au”.

These TLDs are supervised by private organizations.

Infrastructure Top-Level Domains

There is only one TLD in this category, which is “.arpa”. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority controls this TLD for the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

In earlier times, the purpose of each TLD was specific, such as .com which was used only for commercial websites. Eventually, as the Internet kept growing and evolving, this restriction was abandoned, and now there’s almost no distinction between most TLDs.

However, some TLDs are reserved for some unique purposes even today, such as gTLDs that are assigned for educational institutions (.edu) and those assigned for government and the military (.gov and .mil).

Some of the TLDs and their original explanations are as follows:

  • .com — Commercial businesses.

  • .org — Organizations (generally charitable).

  • .net — Network organizations.

  • .gov — U.S. government agencies.

  • .mil — Military.

  • .edu — Educational facilities, like universities.

  • .th — Thailand.

  • .ca — Canada.

  • .au — Australia.

According to the IETF, there are four top-level domain names that are reserved, and are not used in production networks inside the worldwide domain name system:

  • .example — Only available to use in examples.

  • .invalid — Only available to use in invalid domain names.

  • .localhost — Only available to use in local computers.

  • .test — Only available to use in tests.

Currently, some TLDs are more difficult to get compared to easy ones such as .com. Because of this, many organizations register multiple TLDs and redirect them as necessary to the main one used for their principal web resource.

This list of Internet top-level domains (TLD) contains top-level domains, which are those domains in the DNS root zone of the Domain Name System of the Internet. A list of the top-level domains by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is maintained at the Root Zone Database.[1] IANA also oversees the approval process for new proposed top-level domains for ICANN. As of April 2021 , their root domain contains 1502 top-level domains.[2][3] As of March 2021 , the IANA root database includes 1589 TLDs. That also includes 68 that are not assigned (revoked), 8 that are retired and 11 test domains.[1] Those are not represented in IANA’s listing[2] and are not in root.zone file (root.zone file also includes one root domain).[4]

Types

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IANA distinguishes the following groups of top-level domains:[5]

Original top-level domains

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Seven generic top-level domains were created early in the development of the Internet, and predate the creation of ICANN in 1998.

  • Name: DNS names
  • Entity: intended use
  • Notes: general remarks
  • IDN: support for internationalized domain names (IDN)
  • DNSSEC: presence of DS records for Domain Name System Security Extensions

Infrastructure top-level domains

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InfrastructureEntityNotesIDNDNSSEC.arpa”Address and Routing Parameter Area”Originally assigned to the Advanced Research Projects Agency in the early days on the Internet, .arpa is now exclusively used as an Internet infrastructure TLD.NoYes

Country code top-level domains

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As of 20 May 2017, there were 255 country-code top-level domains, purely in the Latin alphabet, using two-character codes. As of June 2022 , the number was 316, with the addition of internationalized domains.[1]

Proposed internationalized ccTLDs

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Internationalised domain names have been proposed for Japan and Libya.

ICANN-era generic top-level domains

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  • Name: DNS name
  • Target market: intended use
  • Restrictions: restrictions, if any, on who can register, and how the domain can be used
  • Operator: entity the registry has been delegated to
  • IDN: support for internationalized domain names (IDN)
  • DNSSEC: presence of DS records for Domain Name System Security Extensions

English

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NameTarget marketRestrictionsOperator/RegistryIDNDNSSEC.jewelryJewelers, jewelry buyers, online retailers, department stores—Identity DigitalYesYes.jobsEmploymentFor websites with job opportunities and job listings.[47]Employ MediaNoYes.joy—Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[9]

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NameTarget marketRestrictionsOperator/RegistryIDNDNSSEC.qponcoupons—dotCOOLUn­knownYes.quebecPeople and businesses in Quebec——Un­knownYes

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NameTarget marketRestrictionsOperator/RegistryIDNDNSSEC.xxxadult entertainment (pornography)For sites providing sexually explicit content, such as pornography.UniregistryYesYes.xyzgeneral—XYZ.comYes[77]Yes

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NameTarget marketRestrictionsOperator/RegistryIDNDNSSEC.yachtsyachtsDERYachts, LLC[9].yogayoga—Minds + Machines[n 3]YesYes.youAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[9].youtubeReserved for YouTubeGoogle, LLC

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NameTarget marketRestrictionsOperator/RegistryIDNDNSSEC.zeroAmazon Registry Services, Inc.[9].zipdigital storage information, providers, and related entitiesCharleston Road Registry Inc. (Google)[9].zoneSports fans, technology groups & followers, entertainment, fairs, destinations with a “zone”, city planners & zoning regulators, any topic with a following—Identity DigitalYesYes

Chinese

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NameChinese termTranslationRestrictionsOperatorIDNDNSSEC.ren人 rén“people/person” in Mandarin pinyinRestricted TLD[78](Cancelled)[79]Un­knownYes.shouji手机 shŏujīmobile phoneQIHOO 360 TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD..tushu图书 túshūbooksAmazon Registry Services, Inc..wanggou网购 wǎnggòuonline shoppingAmazon Registry Services, Inc..weibo微博 wēibómicrobloggingSina Corporation.xihuan喜欢 xǐhuānlikeQIHOO 360 TECHNOLOGY CO. LTD..xin信 xìncredit; honestAlibaba Group

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German

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Hindi

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Italian

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Portuguese

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NameTranslationRestrictionsOperatorIDNDNSSEC.bomgoodNúcleo de Informação e Coordenação do Ponto BR – NIC.br.passagensticketTravel Reservations SRL

Spanish

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Internationalized generic top-level domains

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All of these TLDs are internationalized domain names (IDN) and support second-level IDNs.

  • Notes: general remarks and intended use
  • DNSSEC: presence of DS records for Domain Name System Security Extensions

DNS NameIDNLanguageScriptTransliterationEnglish TranslationNotesDNSSECxn--4gbrim[87].موقعArabicArabicmawqiʿ “site” or “location”Open TLDYesxn--fhbei[87].كومArabickwmcomOwned by: VeriSign Sarl[9]xn--mgbb9fbpob[87].موبايليArabicmūbāylīMobilyOwned by: GreenTech Consultancy Company W.L.L.[9]xn--mgbi4ecexp[87].كاثوليكArabickāthūlīkCatholicOwned by: Pontificium Consilium de Comunicationibus Socialibus (PCCS) (Pontifical Council for Social Communication)[9]xn--ngbc5azd[87].شبكةArabicArabicshabaka“network”Open TLDYesxn--ngbe9e0a[87].بيتكArabicbaytak your homeOwned by: Kuwait Finance House[9]xn--mgbab2bd[87].بازارPersianArabicbâzâr“market”, “bazaar”Open TLDYes DNS NameIDNLanguageScriptTransliterationEnglish TranslationNotesDNSSECxn--3ds443g[87].在线ChineseChinese (Simplified)zàixiàn”online”Open TLD.
The Chinese Government quickly bought 20,000 internationalized subdomains for localities.[88]Yesxn--fiq228c5hs[87].中文网ChineseChinese (Simplified)Zhōngwén wǎng”(written) Chinese (language) network”Open TLD.
The Chinese Government quickly bought 20,000 IDN for localities.[88]Yesxn--ses554g[87].网址ChineseChinese (Simplified)wǎngzhǐ”network address” or “website”Open TLDYesxn--5tzm5g[87].网站ChineseChinese (Simplified)wǎngzhàn”website”Open TLDYesxn--io0a7i[87].网络ChineseChinese (Simplified)wǎngluò”network”Open TLDYesxn--55qx5d[87].公司ChineseChinese (Simplified and Traditional)gōngsī”business organization” or “company”Open TLDYesxn--czru2d[87].商城ChineseChinese (Simplified and Traditional)shāngchéng”mall”Open TLDYesxn--nqv7f[87].机构ChineseChinese (Simplified)jīgòu”agency”Open TLDYesxn--6qq986b3xl[87].我爱你ChineseChinese (Simplified)wǒ ài nǐ”I love you”Open TLDYesxn--czr694b[87].商标ChineseChinese (Simplified)shāngbiāo”trademark”Open TLDYesxn--rhqv96g[87].世界ChineseChinese (Simplified and Traditional)shìjiè”world”Open TLDYesxn--3bst00m[87].集团ChineseChinese (Simplified)jítuán”conglomerate”Open TLDYesxn--30rr7y[87].慈善ChineseChinese (Simplified)Císhàn”philanthropy”Open TLDYesxn--45q11c[87].八卦ChineseChinese (Simplified)Bāguà”gossip”Open TLDYesxn--55qw42g[87].公益ChineseChinese (Simplified)Gōngyì”philanthropy”Open TLDYes

Japanese characters

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DNS NameIDNLanguageScriptTransliterationEnglish TranslationNotesDNSSECxn--q9jyb4c[87].みんなJapaneseHiraganaminnaeveryoneOpen TLD[89]Yesxn--1ck2e1b[87].セールJapaneseKatakanasērusaleOwned by: Amazon Registry Services, Inc.[9]xn--bck1b9a5dre4c[87].ファッションJapaneseKatakanafasshonfashionxn--cck2b3b[87].ストアJapaneseKatakanasutoastorexn--eckvdtc9d[87].ポイントJapaneseKatakanapointopointxn--gckr3f0f[87].クラウドJapaneseKatakanakuraudocloudxn--tckwe[87].コムJapaneseKatakanakomucomOwned by: VeriSign Sarl[9]

Other script

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Geographic top-level domains

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  • Name: DNS name
  • Entity: Target geographic area
  • Notes: general remarks
  • IDN: support for internationalized domain names (IDN)
  • DNSSEC: presence of DS records for Domain Name System Security Extensions

Africa

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Asia

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Europe

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North America

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Oceania

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South America

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Internationalized geographic top-level domains

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Brand top-level domains

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  • Name: DNS name
  • Entity: company and/or brand
  • Notes: general remarks
  • IDN: support for internationalized domain names (IDN)
  • DNSSEC: presence of DS records for Domain Name System Security Extensions

Internationalized brand top-level domains

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Special-Use Domains

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ICANN/IANA has created some Special-Use domain names which are meant for special technical purposes. ICANN/IANA owns all of the Special-Use domain names.[227]

NameEntityNotesIDNDNSSEC.exampleNot installed as a domain name, but usable in text as an example.
(example.com, example.net, and example.org are also reserved for this purpose but are active sites.)Un­known.invalidNot installed as a domain name, but usable in testing as a domain which wouldn’t work.Un­known.localLocal network. Must be used with an mDNS server[228]Un­known.localhostPoints back to own computerUn­known.onionConnection to the Tor networkUn­known.testMeant for testing DNS softwareUn­known

Non-IANA domains

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Besides the TLDs managed (or at least tracked) by IANA or ICANN, other independent groups have created, or had attempted to create, their own TLDs with varying technical specifications, functions, and outcomes.

Blockchain-based domains are registered and exchanged using a public blockchain like Ethereum. Often times, these domains serve specific functions such as creating human-readable references to smart contract addresses used in DApps or personal wallet addresses.[229] Generally, these non-standard domains are unreachable through the normal DNS resolution process and instead require clients to use some sort of transparent web proxy or gateway to access them

NameBlockchainHomepageNotesN/AHandshakehttps://handshake.org/Handshake is both an alternative DNS root zone and a domain name-centric blockchain meant for managing TLDs in a decentralized way which allows virtually any domain to be registered as a TLD by end users. The project intends to be a more resilient and distributed implementation of the global root zone without needing a centralized organization, like ICANN, to manage or operate it. Though it doesn’t aim to outright replace the existing root zone, as it reserves all existing TLDs so that a query for wikipedia.org, for example, that is sent to a Handshake node can be redirected to the traditional root.[230].ethEthereumhttps://ens.domains/Domains under the .eth TLD are primarily used as human-readable aliases to Ethereum wallet addresses, rather than IP addresses,[231] though some efforts into expanding the use of .eth into the traditional DNS space have been made..crypto, .zilEthereum, Zilliqahttps://unstoppabledomains.com/Both .crypto and .zil aim to make cryptocurrency wallet address resolution easier, with the exception that, unlike the other examples mentioned here, the two TLDs are the product of a for-profit company, Unstoppable Domains, that markets the domains as an alternative DNS root despite being entirely dependent on the traditional root zone.[232].bitNamecoinhttps://namecoin.org/Namecoin’s .bit TLD technically operates as a single-domain DNS root, though has historically peered with the OpenNIC root zone to provide greater accessibility. The popularity and usage of .bit domains is much lower than the other projects mentioned, despite it being the earliest example. This is primarily due to the negative reputation Namecoin has garnered after .bit domains became popular for sharing and distributing illegal or illicit content such as malware, which ultimately prompted OpenNIC to end its peering agreement and stop serving the TLD in its root zone in 2018.[233]

Alternate roots

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In the case of alternative DNS roots, organizations or projects make use of the same mechanisms of the DNS but instead take on the role of ICANN in managing and administering an entirely separate root zone, thus having the ability to create new TLDs independently. However, this doesn’t make these domains any less isolated from the rest of the internet, though the ability for clients to resolve them theoretically only requires switching to a recursive DNS resolver that recognizes and serves records underneath the alternate root zone.

NameRootHomepageNotesN/AHandshakehttps://handshake.org/The list of registered TLDs on the Handshake blockchain is too large and dynamic to enumerate here..bbs .chan .cyb .dyn .geek .gopher .indy .libre .neo .null .o .oss .oz .parody .pirateOpenNIChttps://www.opennic.org/.furFurNIChttps://wiki.opennic.org/opennic:dot:fur.lib .coin .emc .bazarEmercoinhttps://emercoin.com/2015-01-15-Emercoin_Reaches_Peering_Agreement_with_OpenNIC.ku .te .ti .uu .ko .rmNew Nationshttp://new-nations.net/en/

See also

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Explanatory notes

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  1. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag

    Domain registry is operated by United TLD Holdco Ltd. t/a Rightside Registry, a subsidiary of the Rightside Group.

  2. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r

    Operated by Charleston Road Registry, Inc., a subsidiary of Google. See [1]

  3. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p

    A subsidiary of Minds + Machines Group (formerly Top Level Domain Holdings.)

  4. ^

    Operating as Top Level Design

  5. ^

    Operating as Afilias Domains No. 5 Limited.

  1. ^

    Operating as Half Oaks, LLC

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    Operating as Knob Town, LLC

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    Operating as Steel Falls, LLC

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    Operating as Baxter Hill, LLC

  5. ^

    Operating as Half Hallow, LLC

  6. ^

    Operating as Grand Hollow, LLC

  7. ^

    Operating as Over Galley, LLC

  8. ^

    Operating as Atomic Madison, LLC

  9. ^

    Operating as Spring Cross, LLC

  10. ^

    Operating as Half Sunset, LLC

  11. ^

    Operating as Atomic Maple, LLC

  12. ^

    Operating as Delta Dynamite, LLC

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    Operating as Delta Mill, LLC

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    Operating as Foggy Hollow, LLC

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    Operating as Goose Cross, LLC

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    Operating as Wild Corner, LLC

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    Operating as Delta Lake, LLC

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    Operating as New Falls, LLC

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    Operating as Tin Mill, LLC

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    Operating as Sand Cover, LLC

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    Operating as Holly Fields, LLC

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    Operating as Snow Sky, LLC

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    Operating as Black Corner, LLC

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    Operating as Fox Shadow, LLC

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    Operating as Goose Park, LLC

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    Operating as Steel Lake, LLC

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    Operating as Puff Willow, LLC

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    Operating as Trixy Cover, LLC

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    Operating as Fox Orchard, LLC

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    Operating as Silver Avenue, LLC

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    Operating as Pine Mill, LLC

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    Operating as Pine House, LLC

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    Operating as Fox Dynamite, LLC

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    Operating as Magic Woods, LLC

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    Operating as Koko Lake, LLC

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    Operating as Snow Shadow, LLC

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    Operating as Binky Frostbite, LLC

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    Operating as Spring Way, LLC

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    Operating as Pine Fest, LLC

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    Operating as Sand Sunset, LLC

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    Operating as Steel Station, LLC

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    Operating as Tin Birch, LLC

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    Operating as John Edge, LLC

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    Operating as Dash Park, LLC

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    Operating as Half Trail, LLC

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    Operating as Extra Madison, LLC

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    Operating as Holly Hill, LLC

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    Operating as Sugar Cross, LLC

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    Operating as Brice Way, LLC

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    Operating as Spring Madison, LLC

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    Operating as Binky Birch, LLC

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    Operating as Romeo Canyon.

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    Operating as Snow Oaks, LLC

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    Operating as Corn Station, LLC

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    Operating as Trixy Park, LLC

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    Operating as Pioneer Maple, LLC

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    Operating as Spring Falls, LLC

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    Operating as Magic Pass, LLC

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    Operating as Victor Beach, LLC

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    Operating as Atomic Pipe, LLC

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    Operating as Just Maple, LLC

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    Operating as Cotton Cypress, LLC

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    Operating as Just Cover, LLC

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    Operating as Fox Woods, LLC

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    Operating as Brice Orchard, LLC

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    Operating as Fox Station, LLC

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    Operating as Half Cypress, LLC

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    Operating as John Dale, LLC

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    Operating as John Castle, LLC

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    Operating as Lone Fields, LLC

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    Operating as Sugar House, LLC

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    Operating as Goose Sky, LLC

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    Operating as Black Cover, LLC

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    Operating as Over Madison, LLC

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    Operating as Corn Sunset, LLC

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    Operating as Snow Moon, LLC

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    Operating as Pioneer Cypress, LLC

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    Operating as Silver Glen, LLC

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    Operating as John Madison, LLC

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    Operating as Goose Woods, LLC

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    Operating as Sugar Park, LLC

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    Operating as Outer House, LLC

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    Operating as Outer Maple, LLC

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    Operating as Pioneer Willow, LLC

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    Operating as Wild Way, LLC

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    Operating as Holly Glen, LLC

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    Operating as Just Goodbye, LLC

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    Operating as Pine Moon, LLC

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    Operating as Victor Trail, LLC

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    Operating as Trixy Oaks, LLC

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    Operating as John McCook, LLC

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    Operating as Big Fest, LLC

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    Operating as Hidden Frostbite, LLC

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    Operating as June Woods, LLC

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    Operating as John Goodbye, LLC

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    Operating as Fern Pass, LLC

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    Operating as Dog Beach, LLC

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    Operating as Grand Glen, LLC

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    Operating as Trixy Manor, LLC

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    Operating as Magic Glen, LLC

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    Operating as Sea Goodbye, LLC

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    Operating as Sugar Glen, LLC

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    Operating as Sea Corner, LLC

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    Operating as Foggy Sky, LLC

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    Operating as Foggy Moon, LLC

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    Operating as Snow Galley, LLC

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    Operating as Spring Tigers, LLC

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    Operating as Magic Birch, LLC

  109. ^

    Operating as Big Pass, LLC

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    Operating as Grand Island, LLC

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    Operating as Big Hollow, LLC

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    Operating as Lone Sunset, LLC

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    Operating as Binky Glen, LLC

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    Operating as Snow Avenue, LLC

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    Operating as Little Galley, LLC

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    Operating as Fox Castle, LLC

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    Operating as Binky Galley, LLC

  118. ^

    Operating as Fern Madison, LLC

  119. ^

    Operating as Ruby Town, LLC

  120. ^

    Operating as Silver Cover, LLC

  121. ^

    Operating as Atomic Fields, LLC

  122. ^

    Operating as Half Falls, LLC

  123. ^

    Operating as Grand Orchard, LLC

  124. ^

    Operating as Tin Avenue, LLC

  125. ^

    Operating as Dash Cypress, LLC

  126. ^

    Operating as Victor Frostbite, LLC

  127. ^

    Operating as Delta Orchard, LLC

  128. ^

    Operating as New Cypress, LLC

  129. ^

    Operating as Outer Moon, LLC

  130. ^

    Operating as Auburn Bloom, LLC

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    Operating as Pioneer Tigers, LLC

Citations

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Written by Jane