Open source intelligence techniques – 8th edition (2021) pdf

Mike continues to pour his heart and soul into this work. He is clear in his intention and detailed about his facts. It is a pleasure to also ‘hear his voice’ while reading, because you can clearly understand that he is using these tools. He is not a textbook writer; he is an intelligence professional who happens to write. My only complaint is volume (the damn thing is too heavy!). It may be time to break this work into a serial production, where sections are updated, but fundamentals remain constant, such as the OSINT model, legal and ethical treatise.
The journey the 8th edition takes us on, is not merely updates and technical changes, but a clear demonstration of OSINT moving away from collection-to-analysis, to defined steps along each moment you are touching data. This book immediately gets us into Linux and platforms for preparation, which our work needs. He also shows our vulnerability-to-exposure is no longer something you can sock puppet your way out of. We need to move from the intelligence lifecycle to the scientific method to meet the need of discovery, evidence, and fact-based intelligence delivery.
This may be Mike’s 8th edition of one book and certainly he is busy in other areas, but I would say he is only getting started, and anything Bazzell produces is worth throwing in your backpack, no matter how heavy, because it is worth its weight! Great job Mike, thanks! Cynthia

9th Edition Changes & Summary

If you have the 8th edition of this book, you may want to know what has changed in this 9th edition. The previous edition of this book was originally written in late 2020. Soon after publication, I declared that I was taking a break from writing, which I did. In late 2021, I was asked to update this book, as it is required reading for numerous college courses, university degrees, and government training academies. I never want stale or inaccurate information being presented within training programs, so I created a special hardcover revision for these audiences. I then replicated the content within a more affordable paperback version. In the previous editions, I only published a new version once I had at least 30% new material and 30% updated content. The recycled material was kept to a maximum of 40%. With this edition, I have deviated away from that rule. I estimate that only 20% of the content here is changed, with the remaining 80% recycled from the previous edition. Much of the eighth edition content was still applicable and only needed minor updates to reflect changes since 2020. If you have read the previous edition, you will find most of those overall strategies within this book. However, I have added many new OSINT methods which complement the original text in order to cater to those who always need accurate information. I also removed a lot of outdated content which was no longer applicable. I believe there is much new value within this updated text. The majority of the updates are available in chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 27, and 28, along with the digital files which accompany them. The other chapters all have minor updates.

All purchases include free download of updated custom search tools; updated Linux, Mac, and Windows OSINT scripts to build your own virtual machines; detailed cheat-sheets to simplify each process; and a single Linux command to build a complete 2022 OSINT VM with every tool in the entire book. You can find your custom login link and credentials within chapters 3, 4, 5, and 6 of each book which provides permanent online access to all files. The outline is below.


SECTION I: OSINT Preparation

CHAPTER 01: Computer Optimization
CHAPTER 02: Linux Virtual Machine
CHAPTER 03: Web Browsers
CHAPTER 04: Linux Applications
CHAPTER 05: VM Maintenance & Preservation
CHAPTER 06: Mac & Windows Hosts
CHAPTER 07: Android Emulation
CHAPTER 08: Custom Search Tools

SECTION II: OSINT Resources and Techniques

CHAPTER 09: Search Engines
CHAPTER 10: Social Networks: Facebook
CHAPTER 11: Social Networks: Twitter
CHAPTER 12: Social Networks: Instagram
CHAPTER 13: Social Networks: General
CHAPTER 14: Online Communities
CHAPTER 15: Email Addresses
CHAPTER 16: Usernames
CHAPTER 17: People Search Engines
CHAPTER 18: Telephone Numbers
CHAPTER 19: Online Maps
CHAPTER 20: Documents
CHAPTER 21: Images
CHAPTER 22: Videos
CHAPTER 23: Domain Names
CHAPTER 24: IP Addresses
CHAPTER 25: Government & Business Records
CHAPTER 26: Virtual Currencies
CHAPTER 27: Advanced Linux Tools
CHAPTER 28: Data Breaches & Leaks


CHAPTER 29: Methodology & Workflow
CHAPTER 30: Documentation
CHAPTER 31: Policy & Ethics


When researching investigative subjects, the first stop for an investigator is usually the internet. And while this is a great place to start, the sheer volume of Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) tools on the internet is staggering.

Make a plan and know where to look before you begin mining for OSINT. Are you looking for an address? Email address? Phone number? Political leanings or other personal details? Depending on what kind of information you are seeking, there are many online avenues, both free and paid-for, that you can take to get it.

If you don’t have time to browse this page now, download our OSINT Links for Investigators cheat sheet to get an interactive PDF of all the links in this article.

No matter which tools you use, remember to capture anything important immediately upon discovering it. The internet is fluid and what you find one day could be gone the next. Hunchly captures pages as you search, leaving a full audit trail that will hold up in court, even when the pages are long gone.

Browse through the extensive list of links below to see 101+ OSINT resources and tools for investigators. If you can think of any good ones we’ve missed, please let us know and we will add them.

The OSINT Library

On this page we collect academic and professional books, articles and papers that can be relevant or interesting to read on the (wider) topic of Open Source Intelligence. Some are already a bit older and maybe do not contain current content (anymore). These are kept in the list for historical purposes to show the development of OSINT as an academic discipline. Others may have a title in which the word OSINT does not appear, however, rest assured, all books relate to the (historical) use of OSINT in some form or way.

You will also notice resources that focus more on intelligence analysis. These are added with a view to balance the predominant focus on the (technical) collection challenges as usually found in publications on OSINT.

Obviously, this page is never finished, so you may want to revisit sometimes (pro tip: use VisualPing or Versionista to monitor this page for changes). Suggestions for titles to include are welcome, especially from before the year 2000 when OSINT was still emerging and especially in languages other than English as the list (and the OSINT field) currently seems somewhat Anglocentric.

Where possible we will include a link to the original source and otherwise the articles / books are available via your (university) library or a proper search. If you really cannot find a specific article, feel free to contact me. [last updated: 23 October 2022]

Legal, ethics, oversight


This section contains the publications which are focussed more on collection techniques, often with an overlap into digital forensics.

  • Bazzell, M. (2020) Extreme Privacy. What it takes to Disappear. (2nd edition. NB: 3rd edition coming soon, already available via Amazon US).
  • Bazzell, M. (2022) Open Source Intelligence Techniques. Resources for Searching and Analysing Online Information (9th edition).
  • Chauhan, S. and N. Panda (2015) Hacking Web Intelligence – Open Source Intelligence and Web Reconnaissance Concepts and Techniques. Syngress.
  • Cuesta Martín, C. (2019) Fuentes de Información OSINT para la Clasificación y Selección de Perfiles sobre Repositorios. Thesis, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia.
  • Hassan, N. and R. Hijazi (2018) Open Source Intelligence Methods and Tools: A Practical Guide to Online Intelligence. Apress.
  • Lallie, H and D. Benford (2011) ‘Challenging the Reliability of iPhone Geo-tags’, The International Journal of Forensic Computer Science, Vol. 1: pp. 59-67.
  • Shamaeva, I. and Galley, D.M. (2021) Custom Search – Discover more:: A Complete Guide to Google Programmable Search Engines. Taylor & Francis Ltd.
Written by Jane