Open source and closed source operating system

1. Open Source Software :
Open source software refers to the computer software which source is open means the general public can access and use. In short it is referred as OSS. The source code of open source software is public. It uses the code freely available on the Internet. This code can be modified by other users and organizations means that the source code is available for anyone to look at. The price of open source software is very less and there is no so much restrictions on users based on usability and modification of software.

Some examples of open source software are Firefox, OpenOffice, Gimp, Alfresco, Android, Zimbra, Thunderbird, MySQL, Mailman, Moodle, TeX, Samba, Perl, PHP, KDE etc.

2. Closed Source Software :
Closed source software refers to the computer software which source code is closes means public is not given access to the source code. In short it is referred as CSS. In closed source software the source code is protected. The only individual or organization who has created the software can only change it. The price of closed source software is high and users need to have valid and authenticated license to use the software. As is issues an authenticated license so it also put a lot restrictions on users based on usability and modification of software.

Some examples of closed source software are Skype, Google earth, Java, Adobe Flash, Virtual Box, Adobe Reader, Microsoft office, Microsoft Windows, WinRAR, mac OS, Adobe Flash Player etc.

Difference between Open Source Software and Closed Source Software :

S.No.OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARECLOSED SOURCE SOFTWARE01.Open source software refers to the computer software which source is open means the general public can access and use.Closed source software refers to the computer software which source code is closes means public is not given access to the source code.02.Open Source Software in short also referred as OSS.Closed Source Software in short also referred as CSS.03.The source code of open source software is public.In closed source software the source code is protected.04.This code can be modified by other users and organizations means that the source code is available for anyone to look at.The only individual or organization who has created the software can only modify the code.05.The price of open source software is very less.The price of closed source software is high.06.There is no so much restrictions on users based on usability and modification of software.There is so much restrictions on users based on usability and modification of software.07.Programmers compete with each other for recognition.Programmers do not compete with each other for recognition.08.Programmers freely provide improvement for recognition if their improvement is accepted.Programmers are hired by the software firm/organization to improve the software.09.If the program is popular then very large number of programmers may work on the project.There is a limitation on the number of programmers/team who will work on the project.10.It is purchased with its source code.It is not purchased with its source code.11.Open software can be installed into any computer.Closed software needs have a valid license before installation into any computer.12.Open source software fails fast and fix faster.Closed source software has no room for failure.13.In closed source software no one is responsible for the software.In closed source software the vendor is responsible if anything happened to software.14.Examples are Firefox, OpenOffice, Gimp, Alfresco, Android, Zimbra, Thunderbird, MySQL, Mailman, Moodle, TeX, Samba, Perl, PHP, KDE etc.Examples are Skype, Google earth, Java, Adobe Flash, Virtual Box, Adobe Reader, Microsoft office, Microsoft Windows, WinRAR, mac OS, Adobe Flash Player etc.

My Personal Notes

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Blackboard Operating System

The operating system is the software that directly controls a computer’s hardware.

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Closed-source operating systems use code that is proprietary and kept secret to prevent its use by other entities. Traditionally, they are sold for a profit. Open-source operating systems use code that is freely-distributed and available to anyone to use, even for commercial purposes. Both types of operating systems have advantages.

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Pricing

Open-source operating systems such as Linux or FreeBSD do not cost anything, through some Linux companies, such as Red Hat, provide supported versions for a fee. Closed-source operating systems can either be free or offered for a price. Microsoft Windows comes preinstalled on many new computers; though you do not have to pay separately for it, the cost of the Windows license is figured into the price by the computer manufacturer, who pays Microsoft a bulk licensing fee for all their preinstalled copies of Windows. Windows can be purchased separately for computers without an operating system or as an upgrade to a previous version of Windows. OS X is also preinstalled on new Macs, with small fees typically charged for upgrades, though the Mavericks upgrade was free.

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Development

With closed source operating systems, the development costs are typically paid for by the company itself, who hires the developers and determines the direction of the project. This offers the benefit of a professional team of developers and guaranteed performance, which is essential for certain software packages. In the open-source community, the direction of a project is determined either by a board of directors, the community or individuals. Development costs are generated through a combination of donations from companies and individuals, or through indirect methods such as developers who are paid by corporations to work on open-source code. For instance, IBM and Red Hat, who sell Linux systems and Linux support, both pay employees to develop open-source Linux code, which benefits not only their open-source Linux variants, but other Linux projects as well. Apple also pays its developers to work on the BSD-variant Darwin, which is the base for its OS X software. Open source-projects are free to choose their direction and are not driven by profitability.

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Source Availability

The manufacturers of closed-source operating systems, such as Windows or OS X, will not allow their programming code to be viewed by most third parties. If there is a vulnerability in the code, it must be discovered by the company itself; because there are a limited number of developers assigned to the project, it is possible that the vulnerability will go unnoticed. In open-source operating systems, the code is viewable by anybody. Theoretically, this means that many more people will be able to see the programming code, offering the potential to catch any vulnerabilities quicker than with closed-source operating systems. In practice, this is not always the case. Since the developers may be volunteers who work on what they are interested in or employees paid by a corporation to work on a specific piece of code, vulnerabilities in other portions of the code may still go unnoticed.

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Examples

Examples of computer open-source operating systems include Linux, FreeBSD and OpenSolaris. Closed-source operating systems include Microsoft Windows, Solaris Unix and OS X. Older closed-source operating systems include OS/2, BeOS and the original Mac OS, which was replaced by OS X. On mobile and tablet systems, closed-source operating systems include Windows Phone, iOS and the Symbian OS that is used by BlackBerry. Android is based on the open-source Linux OS, though it has many proprietary, closed-source extensions. The Linux-based Firefox OS is an example of a fully open-source mobile OS, though it has yet to gain significant popularity.

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Lesson 7: Open Source vs. Closed Source Software​

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Open source vs. closed source software

Almost every piece of computer software is created using source code, which is the technical blueprint that tells a program how to function. When creators release their finished product to the public, they must decide whether to make its code open source or closed source.

Watch the video below to learn more about open source and closed source software.

What is open source and closed source?

With closed source software (also known as proprietary software), the public is not given access to the source code, so they can’t see or modify it in any way.

But with open source software, the source code is publicly available to anyone who wants it, and programmers can read or change that code if they desire. Keep in mind that you don’t have to read or modify any code in order to use an open source product.

Which type is more common?

The vast majority of apps, games, and other popular software is closed source. However, there are open source options for many types of programs. If you want an open source alternative to Microsoft Office, you could use LibreOffice. Instead of using Windows, you could try an open source Linux operating system. Other common open source examples include the Firefox web browser and WordPress blogging platform.

What are the pros and cons?

One of open source’s biggest advantages is that it’s usually free, although some features and technical support may cost extra. Also, because the code is available to anyone who wants it, public collaboration can fix bugs, add features, and improve performance within a relatively short amount of time.

However, open source software isn’t perfect. It may not be as user friendly as closed source software, and if you run into trouble it may be difficult to find technical support, especially for less popular programs.

Closed source software is more likely to be a stable, focused product, and if you need support customer service is typically easier to access. However, closed source software often costs money, and if it has any bugs or missing features you’ll have to wait on the creator to address the problems.

Now that you understand the difference between open and closed source software, you can take advantage of the type that best meets your needs.

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Written by Jane