Internet and open source concepts class 12 notes

Students can Download 2nd PUC Computer Science Chapter 16 Internet and Open Source Concepts Questions and Answers, Notes Pdf, 2nd PUC Computer Science Question Bank with Answers helps you to revise the complete Karnataka State Board Syllabus and to clear all their doubts, score well in final exams.

Karnataka 2nd PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 16 Internet and Open Source Concepts

2nd PUC Computer Science Internet and Open Source Concepts One Mark Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is open source software?
Answer:
Open source software, which refers to software whose source code is available to customers and it can be modified and redistributed without any limitations.

2nd PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 16 Internet and Open Source Concepts

Question 2.
What are free software?
Answer:
Free software means the software is freely accessible and can be freely used, changed, improved, copied and distributed by all who wish to do so.

Question 3.
What is OSS and FLOSS?
Answer:
OSS refers to Open source software, which refers to software whose source code is available to customers and it can be modified and redistributed without any limitation. FLOSS refers to free Libre and open source software or to Free Livre and open source software. The term FLOSS is used to refer to software which is both free software as well as open software. Here the words (a Spanish word) and Livre (a Portuguese word) mean freedom.

Question 4.
What is proprietary software?
Answer:
Proprietary software is the software that is neither open nor freely available.

Question 5.
What is freeware?
Answer:
Software, which is available free of cost and which allows copying and further distribution, but not modification and whose source code is not available.

Question 6.
What are Browsers?
Answer:
A web browser is a computer application or software that allows you to view pages of information available on the world wide web.

Question 7.
What are URL?
Answer:
URL Stands for Uniform Resource Locator and it is the address of a file or resource accessible on the internet.

Question 8.
What are Telnet?
Answer:
Telnet is an older Internet utility that lets you log on to remote computer systems.

2nd PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 16 Internet and Open Source Concepts

Question 9.
What is domain?
Answer:
Domain is a Name that identifies a computer on the Internet.

Question 10.
What is domain affiliation?
Answer:
Taking the permission to create a domain from the service provider.

Question 11.
Define E-commerce.
Answer:
E-Commerce can be defined as using telecommunications and computers to facilitate the trade of goods and services.

Question 12.
Expand IPR.
Answer:
Intellectual property rights.

2nd PUC Computer Science Internet and Open Source Concepts Two Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
List the OSS and FLOSS.
Answer:
LINUX, VLC media player, GIMP, open office.

2nd PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 16 Internet and Open Source Concepts

Question 2.
What is FSF?
Answer:
FSF is free software Foundation. FSF is a non-profit organization created for the purpose of supporting free software movement. Richard Stallman founded FSF in 1985 to support GNU project and GNU licenses. FSF has founded many software developers to write free software.

Question 3.
What are OSI and W3C?
Answer:
OSI is open source Initiative organization dedicated to cause of promoting open source software. OSI specifies the criteria for open source software and properly defines the terms and specifications of open source software. World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is responsible for producing the software standards for the world wide web. Developing common protocols that promote its evolution and ensure its inter operability.

Question 4.
What is URL and HTTP?
Answer:
The Internet structure of the world wide web is built on a set of rules called Hypertext Transter protocol (HTTP). HTTP uses internet addresses in a special format called a Uniform Resource Locator or URL.
Ex: type: // address/path
http://encycle. msn.com/getinfo/styles.asp.

Question 5.
Name the different protocols used?
Answer:

  1. File Transfer Protocol – FTP.
  2. Transfer Control Protocol / Internet Protocol – TCP / IP.
  3. Hypertext Transfer Protocol Post Office Protocol (POP) version 3.
  4. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol – SMTP.
  5. News Transfer Protocol – NNTP.

Question 6.
List the services of e-commerce?
Answer:

  1. Electronic Fund transfer
  2. Electronic Benefits transfer
  3. Electronic forms
  4. Digital cash
  5. Electronic Banking
  6. Bar – coding – 2D

2nd PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 16 Internet and Open Source Concepts

Question 7.
Write a note on WIPO.
Answer:
World Intellectual Property Organisation – WIPO, is a global forum for intellectual property services, policy, information and co – operation. Copy right has been the focus of protecting intellectual property on the internet. As such, there have been efforts, both technological (IPR / encryption wrappers) and legislative, to continue incentives for authors to create useful works. Recent initiatives have been at the international level include at OECD, and a conference (Dec.96) hosted by the WIPO.

2nd PUC Computer Science Internet and Open Source Concepts Three Marks Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is open source?
Answer:
Open source software, which refers to software whose source code is available to customers and it can be modified and redistributed without any limitations. Open software on the other hand, can be freely used but if does not have to’ be free of charge. Here the company constructing the business models around open source software may receive the payments concerning support, further development.

what is important to know here is that in open source software, the source cbde is freely available to the customer. Open source doesn’t just mean access to the source code. The distribution terms to open source software must comply with the following criteria.

  1. Free distribution
  2. Source code
  3. Derived works.
  4. No discrimination against persons or groups.
  5. The license must not restrict other software.
  6. The license must technology-neutral.

Question 2.
Write the Advantages of WWW.
Answer:
The WWW (World Wide Web) is a set of protocols that allows you to access any document on the net through a naming system based on URL’s. WWW also specifies a way the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to send a document over the internet. Before WWW Internet was mainly used for obtaining textual information. But post- WWW, the Internet popularity grew tremendously because of graphic-intensive nature of WWW.

Question 3.
What is Telnet?
Answer:
Telnet is an older Internet utility that lets you log on to remote computer systems. Basically, a Telnet program gives you a charcter-based terminal window on another system. You get a login prompt on that system. If you’ve permitted access, you can work on that system, just as you would if you were sitting next to it.

Telnet has been used by people who have logins on remote systems & want to do serious work there. Most notably, you can use Telnet to connect to thousands of catalogs at libraries around the world.

2nd PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 16 Internet and Open Source Concepts

Question 4.
Write the web servers.
Answer:
Web server is a WWW server that responds to the requests made by web browsers. Each website has a unique address called URL (Uniform Resource Locator).

Question 5.
Write a note on open sources?
Answer:
Open sources software, on the other hand, can be freely used but it does not have to be free of charge. Here the company constructing the business models around open source software may receive the payments concerning support, further development, what is important to know here is that in open source software, the source code is freely available to the customer. Open source doesn’t Just mean access to the source code. The distribution terms of open source software must comply with the set criteria.

Question 6.
Explain free software?
Answer:
Free software means the software is freely accessible and can be freely used, changed, improved, copied and distributed by all who wish to do so. And no payments are needed to be made for free software. Free software is a matter of liberty, not price.

To understand the concept, you should think of “free” as in “free speech”, not as in “free beer”. Free software is a matter of the users freedom to run, copy distribute, study, change and improve the software. More precisely, it refers to four kinds of freedom, for the user of the software.

  1. The freedom to run the program, for any purpose.
  2. The freedom to study how the program works and adapt it to your needs. Access to the source, code is a precondition for this.
  3. The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor.
  4. The freedom to improve the program and release your improvement to the public.

Question 7.
Explain URLs?
Answer:
The Internet structure of the world wide web is built on a set of rules called Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). HTTP uses internet Address in a special formal called, a Uniform Resource Locator or URL.
Type:// address/path
Http:// necycle, msn,com/ getinfo/ Styles, asp
URL is an address of a file on Internet. The components or syntax elements of URL’s and a file’s Internet address, or URL, is determined by the following.

  1. The type or address of the server on Internet.
  2. The name or address of the server on Internet.
  3. The location of the file on the server.

Question 8.
How does E-Commerce work?
Answer:

Step – 1:
The merchant submits a credit card transaction to the NMAPAY payment geteway on behalf of a customer via secure web site connection, retail, retail store, MOTO center or wireless device.

Step – 2:
NMAPAY receives the secure transaction information and passes it via a secure connection to the merchant Bank’s processor.

Step – 3:
National merchants Association submits the transaction to the credit card Network (a system of financial entities that communicate to manage the processing, clearing, and setlement of credit card transactions)

Step – 4:
The credit card Network routes the transaction to the customer’s credit card Issuing Bank.

Step – 5:
The customer’s credit card Issuing Bank approves or declines the transaction based on the customer’s available funds and passes the transaction results -back to the credit card Network.

Step – 6:
The credit card Network realys the transaction reseelts to national Merchants association.

Step – 7:
National merchants Association relays the transaction results through NMAPAY (website).

Step – 8:
NMAPAY stores the transaction results and sends them to the customer and to the merchant. This step completes the authorization process-all in about three second or less.

Step – 9:
National merchants Association sends the appropriate funds for the transactions to the credit card Network, which passes the funds to the Merchants Bank. The bank then deposits the funds into the merchant’s bank account. This step is know as settlement process and typically the transaction funds are deposited into your primary bank account within 24 to 48 hours.

2nd PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 16 Internet and Open Source Concepts

Question 9.
Explain types of E-Commerce.
Answer:

  1. Business – to – business (B2B): The Exchange of services, information and /or products from one business to another Business partners. ex: E bay.com
  2. Business-to-Consumer(B2C): The Exchange of service, information and / or product from a business to consumer.
  3. Consumer – to -Business (C2B): Customer directly contact with business vendors by posting their project work with set budget online so that the needy companies review it and contact the customer directly with bid. The consumer reviews all the bids and selects the company for further processing. ex: quru.com. feelancer.com.
  4. Consumer – to – Consumer: Electronic commerce is an internet facilitated form of business (commerce).

Question 10.
Explain IPR in India.
Answer:
While the IPR regime in India consists of robust IP laws, it lacks effective enforcement, for which “least priority given to adjudication of IP matters” is often quoted as a reason. The key challenge is to sensitive the enforcement officials and the Judiciary to take up IP matters.

Further, it is imperative that there be established a “Think Tank” or a group, which can bring the varied sets of stake holders on to a common platform, leading to extensive/exhaustive and an all inclusive debate/ discussion, facilitating well- informed policy decisions.

2nd PUC Computer Science Internet and Open Source Concepts Additional Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What is GUI?
Answer:
Graphical User Interface.

Question 2.
What is Internet?
Answer:
Internet is the global collection of computers, which are linked together by cables and telephone lines making communication possible among them in a common language.

Question 3.
What is a Browser?
Answer:
A web browser is a computer application or software that allows your to view pages of information available on the world wide web (www). ex: Internet explorer.

Question 4.
Expand WWW?
Answer:
World Wide Web.

Question 5.
List any two services of Internet.
Answer:

  • E-mail (electronic mail)
  • File transfers

2nd PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 16 Internet and Open Source Concepts

Question 6.
What is GOPHER?
Answer:
GOPHER is an Internet research tool that presents lists of Internet resources as entries in a menu.

Question 7.
What is EDI?
Answer:
Electronic data Interchange (EDI) is the computer to computer exchange of business data in a standard format.

Question 8.
What is voice mail?
Answer:
Voice mail means a method of sending the voice messages (Speech) from one computer to another.

Question 9.
Write any one advantage of E-mail.
Answer:
Messages can be sent at any time to anywhere through e-mail.

Question 10.
Explain E-Commerce.
Answer:
E-commerce or electronic commerce is a way of doing business on the Internet. One can buy or sell goods and services over the Internet. Buying and selling goods and services online, It is a 24×7 Service, payment is on-line, without going to shopping malls, one can see goods and variety. Expanding customer base at a lower cost. Faster service at out doorstep. Faster electronic fund transfer.

2nd PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 16 Internet and Open Source Concepts

Question 11.
Mention any two types of e-commerce.
Answer:
Business to Business (B2B) Business to customer (B2C) consumer to Business (C2B) Consumer to consumer. (C2C) is different types of e-commerce. (Give any two).

Question 12.
What are the different internet services?
Answer:
The different internet services are:

  • E-mail (Eletronic mail)
  • Voice mail
  • Telnet or remote login
  • Chat
  • Bull Boards
  • Newsgroup
  • FTP(File transfer protocol)

Question 13.
What is search engine? Give e-commerce.
Answer:
Search Engines:
There are the special websites used for searching information in the web. It receives Key words from user, search the data and displays on screen. Eg: Google, com, Alta vista.com.

Question 14.
Explain advantages and disadvantages of E-Commerce.
Answer:
Advantages of E-Commerce:

  1. Buying and selling goods and service online.
  2. A 24 x 7 service.
  3. Online payment-you need carry huge money for making payments to the shopkeeper.
  4. Service portal – a lot of financial, legal and medical advice can be obtained online.
  5. Online window shopping – without going to the shopping malls, one can see the goods and variety.
  6. Expanding customer base at a lower cost.
  7. Reduce order processing cost.
  8. Faster service at your doorstep.
  9. Faster electronic fund transfer.

2nd PUC Computer Science Question Bank Chapter 16 Internet and Open Source Concepts

Disadvantages of E-commerce:

  1. Limited Internet access in India and in some other countries.
  2. Initial infrastructure cost is high.
  3. Security issues -payment by credit cards requires faith in the security system
  4. EDI Standards have to be implemented.
  5. Strict and proper cyber laws have to be enforced to counteract the cyber frauds- stealing credit card number, missing etc.
  6. E-Commerce websites: portals should be protected from virus attacks, denial – of – service attacks.
  7. Real feeling of shopping – Customer who goes to the shop/mall to buy may not feel the same in online shopping.
Written by Jane